#### TABLE OF CONTENTS

**Chapter 1.** Measurement, Statistics, and Research

What Is Measurement?

Process of Measurement

Variables and Constants

Research Design and Statistical Analysis

Statistical Inference

Summary

**Chapter 2.** Organizing and Displaying Data

Organizing Data

Displaying Data

Summary

**Chapter 3.** Percentiles

Common Percentile Divisions

Calculations Using Percentiles

Summary

**Chapter 4.** Measures of Central Tendency

Mode

Median

Mean

Relationships Among the Mode, Median, and Mean

Summary

**Chapter 5.** Measures of Variability

Range

Interquartile Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

Definition Method of Hand Calculations

Calculating Standard Deviation for a Sample

Coefficient of Variation

Standard Deviation and Normal Distribution

Summary

**Chapter 6. **The Normal Curve

Z Scores

Standard Scores

Probability and Odds

Calculating Skewness and Kurtosis

Summary

**Chapter 7.** Fundamentals of Statistical Inference

Predicting Population Parameters Using Statistical Inference

Estimating Sampling Error

Levels of Confidence, Confidence Intervals, and Probability of Error

An Example Using Statistical Inference

Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Type I and Type II Error

Degrees of Freedom

Living With Uncertainty

Two- and One-Tailed Tests

Applying Confidence Intervals

Summary

**Chapter 8. **Correlation and Bivariate Regression

Correlation

Calculating the Correlation Coefficient

Bivariate Regression

Homoscedasticity

Summary

**Chapter 9.** Multiple Correlation and Multiple Regression

Multiple Correlation

Partial Correlation

Multiple Regression

Summary

**Chapter 10.** The* t* Test: Comparing Means From Two Sets of Data

The* t* Tests

Types of* t* Tests

Magnitude of the Difference (Size of Effect)

Determining Power and Sample Size

The* t* Test for Proportions

Summary

**Chapter 11. **Simple Analysis of Variance: Comparing the Means Among Three or More Sets of Data

Assumptions in ANOVA

Sources of Variance

Calculating *F*: The Definition Method

Determining the Significance of *F*

Post Hoc Tests

Magnitude of the Treatment (Size of Effect)

Summary

**Chapter 12. **Analysis of Variance With Repeated Measures

Assumptions in Repeated Measures ANOVA

Calculating Repeated Measures ANOVA

Correcting for Violations of the Assumption of Sphericity

Post Hoc Tests

Interpreting the Results

An Example From Leisure Studies and Recreation

Summary

**Chapter 13.** Quantifying Reliability

Intraclass Correlation Coefficient

Standard Error of Measurement

Summary

**Chapter 14. **Factorial Analysis of Variance

A Between–Between Example

A Between–Within Example

A Within–Within Example

Summary

**Chapter 15. **Analysis of Covariance

Relationship Between ANOVA and Regression

ANCOVA and Statistical Power

Assumptions in ANCOVA

The Pretest–Posttest Control Group Design

Pairwise Comparisons

Summary

**Chapter 16.** Analysis of Nonparametric Data

Chi-Square (Single Classification)

Chi-Square (Two or More Classifications)

Rank Order Correlation

Mann-Whitney *U* Test

Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for Ranked Data

Friedman’s Two-Way ANOVA by Ranks

Summary

**Chapter 17. **Clinical Measures of Association

Relative Risk

Odds Ratio

Diagnostic Testing

Summary

**Chapter 18.** Advanced Statistical Procedures

Multilevel Modeling

Meta-Analysis

Multiple Analysis of Variance

Factor Analysis

Discriminant Analysis

Summary

Appendix: Statistical Tables