## TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface ix

**Unit A: Data 1**

**Chapter 1. Collecting Data 2**

1.1. The Structure of Data 4

1.2. Sampling from a Population 16

1.3. Experiments and Observational Studies 29

**Chapter 2. Describing Data 46**

2.1. Categorical Variables 48

2.2. One Quantitative Variable: Shape and Center 63

2.3. One Quantitative Variable: Measures of Spread 77

2.4. Boxplots and Quantitative/Categorical Relationships 93

2.5. Two Quantitative Variables: Scatterplot and Correlation 106

2.6. Two Quantitative Variables: Linear Regression 123

2.7. Data Visualization and Multiple Variables 137

**Unit A: Essential Synthesis 161**

Review Exercises 174

**Unit B: Understanding Inference 193**

**Chapter 3. Confidence Intervals 194**

3.1. Sampling Distributions 196

3.2. Understanding and Interpreting Confidence Intervals 213

3.3. Constructing Bootstrap Confidence Intervals 228

3.4. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals using Percentiles 242

**Chapter 4. Hypothesis Tests 256**

4.1. Introducing Hypothesis Tests 258

4.2. Measuring Evidence with P-values 272

4.3. Determining Statistical Significance 288

4.4. A Closer Look at Testing 303

4.5. Making Connections 318

**Unit B: Essential Synthesis 341**

Review Exercises 351

**Unit C: Inference with Normal and t-Distributions 369**

**Chapter 5. Approximating with a Distribution 370**

5.1. Hypothesis Tests Using Normal Distributions 372

5.2. Confidence Intervals Using Normal Distributions 387

**Chapter 6. Inference for Means and Proportions 402**

6.1. Inference for a Proportion

6.1-D Distribution of a Proportion 404

6.1-CI Confidence Interval for a Proportion 407

6.1-HT Hypothesis Test for a Proportion 414

6.2. Inference for a Mean

6.2-D Distribution of a Mean 419

6.2-CI Confidence Interval for a Mean 424

6.2-HT Hypothesis Test for a Mean 433

6.3. Inference for a Difference in Proportions

6.3-D Distribution of a Difference in Proportions 438

6.3-CI Confidence Interval for a Difference in Proportions 441

6.3-HT Hypothesis Test for a Difference in Proportions 446

6.4. Inference for a Difference in Means

6.4-D Distribution of a Difference in Means 452

6.4-CI Confidence Interval for a Difference in Means 455

6.4-HT Hypothesis Test for a Difference in Means 461

6.5. Paired Difference in Means 468

**Unit C: Essential Synthesis 477**

Review Exercises 489

**Unit D: Inference for Multiple Parameters 505**

**Chapter 7. Chi-Square Tests for Categorical Variables 506**

7.1. Testing Goodness-of-Fit for a Single Categorical Variable 508

7.2. Testing for an Association between Two Categorical Variables 523

**Chapter 8. ANOVA to Compare Means 538**

8.1. Analysis of Variance 540

8.2. Pairwise Comparisons and Inference after ANOVA 563

**Chapter 9. Inference for Regression 574**

9.1. Inference for Slope and Correlation 576

9.2. ANOVA for Regression 591

9.3. Confidence and Prediction Intervals 603

**Chapter 10. Multiple Regression 610**

10.1. Multiple Predictors 612

10.2. Checking Conditions for a Regression Model 624

10.3. Using Multiple Regression 633

**Unit D: Essential Synthesis 647**

Review Exercises 661

**The Big Picture: Essential Synthesis 669**

Exercises for the Big Picture: Essential Synthesis 683

**Chapter P. Probability Basics 688**

P.1. Probability Rules 690

P.2. Tree Diagrams and Bayes’ Rule 702

P.3. Random Variables and Probability Functions 709

P.4. Binomial Probabilities 716

P.5. Density Curves and the Normal Distribution 724

Appendix A. Chapter Summaries 737

Appendix B. Selected Dataset Descriptions 749

Partial Answers 761

**Index**

General Index 783

Data Index 786